During the trip there is always a risk of getting one or another damage, injury to the surface of the skin. Proper treatment of the wound contributes to its speedy healing without the risk of blood poisoning, suppuration and infection. Of course, at the same time, it is advisable to have a minimum set of necessary funds in the first-aid kit for first aid in the event of wounds and abrasions, which relates to preliminary treatment.
Wound Treatment RulesWound Treatment
There are general rules for treating wounds:
- This process is carried out only with clean hands.
- The victim is positioned so that pressure is not exerted on the damaged part of the body, and maximum peace is maintained.
- The wound surface should be immediately covered with a clean cloth, gauze bandage or bandage to prevent the entry of germs and dirt. Stop bleeding as soon as possible.
- The surface of the wound or abrasion is washed with water. If there is no clean water in the field conditions, you need to filter and disinfect the water from the nearest body of water using improvised means.
- The edges of the wound are treated with any antiseptic. If it is applied to the wound surface itself, it can damage tissues, in some cases cause necrosis.
- For the treatment of abrasions in the mouth, nose or eyes, do not use oil or alcohol antiseptics. For this, a weak aqueous antiseptic solution is used.
If you do not treat tissue damage and stop bleeding a deep wound after two hours, there is a possibility of tetanus, sepsis, impaired heart function, dizziness, and loss of consciousness. If your well-being worsens sharply in a day (the temperature rises sharply, chills begin, confusion occurs, muscle aches and weakness appear), there is a high probability that an infection has entered the bloodstream and its infection is possible, which is difficult to treat.
Wound Treatment Liquid
The antiseptic will destroy microbes, viruses, fungi that have got inside the damaged tissues, prevent their further development, infection, blood poisoning. Antiseptic treatment of tissue should be performed within the first two hours. Antibiotics should not be used instead of antiseptics, since they only target bacterial microflora, while skin damage can contain bacterial, and fungal, or mixed microflora.
Among antiseptics, the following fluids are allocated for the treatment of wounds of various etiologies and types:
The edges of the damaged tissue are treated with iodine, otherwise you can cause a burn. You can not use this antiseptic for diseases of the thyroid gland, kidneys, various dermatitis.
Wound treatment with brilliant green is carried out similarly to iodine - only along the edges. It has a drying effect, and is used until the wound begins to heal. Further, it can not be used, so as not to cause a burn. Do not use if the wound bleeds heavily.
It is used during the initial treatment after the damaged tissue is treated with hydrogen peroxide. Like peroxide, even a small amount of chlorhexidine destroys fungi, germs, and viruses. For treatment, you need to pour a wound from a syringe with this antiseptic.
An aqueous solution of furatsilin is prepared at the rate of 10 tablets per liter of heated water. With a cooled solution, wounds on the skin and mucous membrane are treated, moistening them with a stream of antiseptic. In addition, it can also be applied directly to the gauze bandage. Furacilin solution can be used both in the primary treatment and in the secondary, as well as purulent wounds.
- Hydrogen peroxide
Only 3% peroxide solution is used. During the initial treatment, foam forms, which removes small impurities from the wound surface. It is used both in primary processing and secondary, in the treatment of purulent lesions. The proper use of hydrogen peroxide is not to apply the dressing moistened by it, but to wet the wound with a pulsating jet of peroxide. As a rule, treatment with this antiseptic is carried out in the presence of shallow skin lesions, as well as until the moment when the process of scarring of the tissue begins. Hydrogen peroxide is not used in combination with other antiseptics, it must be stored in a container protected from light.
Only the edges of the previously washed wound are processed with alcohol during the initial treatment, after which another antiseptic (zelenka or iodine) is applied to it.
- Potassium permanganate
A weak manganese solution kills microorganisms. Each treatment should be carried out only with a freshly prepared solution. It is used for various injuries of the skin and mucous membranes.
This is a modern antiseptic, used to treat open wounds and damage to the mucous membrane. Destroys various microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, fungi, helps with burns.
If you do not have the above funds with you, you can use a two percent solution of soda, concentrated salt solution, vodka, chamomile infusion. Decoctions of St. John's wort, calendula, yarrow, raspberry possess antiseptic properties. With open weeping wounds, an aqueous solution of propolis helps. If the damage is not deep, you can prepare the product from aloe juice, sea buckthorn oil and rose hips.
Abrasion and scratch treatmentTreatment of abrasions and wounds
When the skin is rubbed against a hard, rough surface, abrasions and scratches form. The surface layer of the skin is damaged, small vessels are broken, point bleeding is formed. As a rule, a large surface of the skin is damaged, causing very painful sensations, since a large number of nerve endings are exposed. The difference between abrasions and deep wounds is that they quickly heal without leaving scars, since subcutaneous tissues are not affected by damage.
The treatment of minor injuries consists in cleaning the wound of dirt, earth, other litter with the help of water (preferably flowing). After this, you need to conduct an antiseptic treatment, cover with a gauze bandage so that it does not stick to the surface of the skin.
If the scratches are very dirty, they should be washed with special care. So, for wounds on the limbs or fingers, antiseptic baths will be the best solution. If the trunk, knees, elbows are scratched, a wet gauze dressing should be applied to the damaged surface, and after the wound is dried, proceed to antiseptic treatment.
Deep wound treatment
You must understand that the treatment of deep wounds should be carried out with the subsequent provision of qualified medical care. Damage of more than two centimeters is considered to be deep, with the penetration of foreign objects when the nerve endings that bring sharp pain are affected. Before medical care is provided, consisting in surgical suturing, it is necessary to quickly treat the damage as quickly and efficiently as possible:
- First you need to stop the bleeding with a tourniquet or pressure bandage.
- The skin around the wound is treated with a swab, folded bandage, moistened with an antiseptic.
- Damage is washed away from dirt that has got there.
- With the severity of the lesion, the wound will fester, and overgrow with granulation tissue. To remove the inflammatory process, it is necessary to ensure a good outflow of pus.
- The first two days, the damage is treated with a swab moistened with 10% salt solution, chlorhexidine or hydrogen peroxide with the same dressings.
- After 5-10 days, you can use antiseptic ointments that contribute to the outflow of pus (Vishnevsky, Streptocid ointment, Syntomethacin and the like).
- With lacerations, the damaged area is treated with a pulsating antiseptic stream.
After the assistance provided in the field, you must consult a doctor. Surgical help consists in suturing with preliminary dissection of the wound surface, treatment with an antiseptic, cutting off the protruding uneven edges of the skin near the wound, and in the presence of a purulent lesion, installation of a drainage for its outflow. After the inflammatory process is stopped, the doctor stitches. After this, the affected area is bandaged with a bandage with the application of an antiseptic ointment in the complex treatment with antibiotics.