A fighter’s nutrition should be high-calorie, rational, including all the necessary nutrients to maintain physical strength and endurance in the service. The ideal food for the soldier is fresh, hot food, but this is not always achievable. For nutrition in the field, an individual diet (IRP) is provided, which has a different name for army dry rations. Despite its name, rations are used not only in the army, but are also popular among those people who are often away from civilization - tourists, hunters, fishermen. They are commercially available, convenient to use, and include foods that make up the daily diet. One serving of dry rations, designed for one soldier, can be enough for two or three people in the campaign.
Individual dietArmy rations for camping
Dry rations vary in appearance and composition. So, there are rations designed for one meal, or for the number of meals in one day. Rations are individually calculated for the energy consumption of military personnel in a specific situation. Depending on the area and the tasks of military service, the composition of dry rations may include more high-calorie foods. The higher the energy consumption of personnel in performing tasks, the higher should be the calorie content of dry.
Despite some differences in composition, the army ration for all military personnel is balanced by the daily norm of protein, fat, and carbohydrate content. An individual diet is constantly being improved, undergoes various tests and studies. However, according to Russian standards, the continuous use of an individual diet should not be more than seven days.
The average calorific value of an individual diet is 2500-3000 kcal, weight from 750 g to almost two kilograms.
Dry soldering requirements
Despite the fact that the composition of the army IRP in Russia and foreign countries is different, the requirements for its composition and packaging are the same:
- The packaging of the IRP must be airtight, protect from any contamination.
- The composition of the IRP should include only products with a long shelf life. The content of products requiring special storage conditions is excluded.
- Products with easily digestible ingredients that are not capable of causing food allergies, disorders and more should be included.
- Products should be easy to prepare or have already been processed.
- The energy and nutritional value of the products of the IRP should be the daily requirement of a person.
In addition to perishable products, it is forbidden to include alcohol, products with confectionery or cooking oil, cocoa, as well as containing a large number of spices, preservatives, and natural coffee in the IRP. It is also unacceptable to have fresh fruits and vegetables, and any products that have not passed clinical and laboratory tests.
Army rations ration composition
In addition to products, the composition of dry soldering includes disposable devices for eating, dishes, napkins, products for lighting a fire and heating food, tablets for disinfecting water.
Army rations today include ingredients depending on the type of IRP. The classification of the IRP is as follows:
- An individual diet is everyday.
There are seven species. The content is designed to be consumed both in cold and hot form, as well as without the need for heat treatment or the use of water. Packaging for canned food does not consist of tin, but of a special polymer material that is resistant to various influences: high temperature, radiation, chemical or biological attacks. It is easier to carry, and a special loop allows you to mount several rations on equipment for compact transportation. An individual daily diet is designed for a daily meal in the presence of at least cold water in which concentrates can be diluted.Juicy Beef Meat
Daily RPI includes (data after changes made in 2014 for all seven types of composition):
- Wheat Bread
- Barley porridge with beef
- Vegetable stew with meat
- Beef meat
- Beans with vegetables and meat or in tomato sauce
- Vegetable stew
- Cream cheese in canned food
- Liver paste
- Mackerel with butter
- Minced meat
- Concentrated fruit, berry tonic drink based on natural ingredients
- Chocolate paste
- Condensed milk with sugar
- Fruit stick (apricot, plum, apple)
- Black tea bags
- Sugar, also in bags
- Ground black pepper
- Portable heater
- Waterproof matches
- Disinfectant and paper napkins
- Tablets for filtering and disinfecting water
- Plastic spoon
- Can opener
- Individual combat diet
It includes canned food, which includes stew, minced meat, canned fish, buckwheat and rice with meat. Also included are army bread, instant packet tea, sugar, coffee drink, a natural fruit drink concentrate, tomato sauce, and jam. Other contents include disinfecting tablets, antibacterial wipes, a portable heater (dry fuel), moisture and windproof matches, a spoon and a can opener.
These are two main types of individual diet, but besides them there are also other types:
- Army rations for survival
- Disposable for a single meal
- Donation for donors
- Onboard IRP for crews of aircraft
- Preventive IRP for military personnel in conditions of various emissions and toxic substances contained in the air
And some others, designed for individual special units.
Each packer contains detailed instructions listing the composition, as well as recommendations on how to reheat food, use a portable heater, and more. All bulk food products, as well as matches, are packed in sealed bags of moisture-proof material.
Army ration: composition, comparison
The modern army ration is different from what it was in Soviet times. For comparison, you can take the data of 1941, 1980, 1991:
- The individual diet of 1941 for one Soviet soldier included: rye crackers at the rate of 600 g, millet porridge, pea puree soup - concentrated; one of the following: half-smoked sausage "Minsk", feta cheese, smoked, dried or dried fish, herring, canned meat. Also included was tea, salt, granulated sugar.
- In 1980, the diet changed and amounted to a set of products: canned meat with a volume of 250 grams, two cans of canned porridge (rice or buckwheat) with meat, a small package of rye crackers, a bag of tea and granulated sugar. The amount of sugar has increased compared to previous decades.
- In 1991, the army rations consisted of two sets - daily and combat. The combat dry rations consisted of four cans of canned meat from stewed meat, minced meat or paste, fish, as well as cereal or buckwheat with pieces of meat. It also included six packs of bread or unleavened crackers, two packets of tea with sugar, multivitamins, fruit jam, concentrated powder for the drink, coffee drink, granulated sugar, tomato sauce, tablets for filtering water, dry fuel, disposable devices for eating, dishes. A plastic can opener, napkins, and windproof matches were also included.
The daily package of individual meals in the army was designed for one day, including breakfast, lunch and dinner, in its composition it is similar to a military one. Its only difference is lower calorie content and mass. The rations were divided by numbers, like modern ones, each of which differed in the set of food products. The only thing that has never changed is hygiene products, dishes, means for igniting and heating food. So, another set included herring, stew with green peas, beans in tomato, vegetable caviar, cream cheese.
Each of the countries of the world is developing its own, individual diet of individual nutrition. For example, in America, a dry pack consists of 24 types of menus to choose from, each of which contains a main course. It is designed for only one meal. An American individual diet contains an average of 1,200 calories and weighs between 500 and 700 grams. It includes instant drinks - tea, coffee, as well as a cold concentrated drink - lemonade. Unlike Russian dry rations, American contains confectionery - these are biscuits, muffins, sweets, cookies. For warming up products, American dry pack contains a special package with a flameless chemical heater. To bring it into action, it is necessary to pour a small amount of water inside and place food. Perhaps, judged objectively, this is the only advantage compared to the Russian IRP. Confectionery products do not give a long-term feeling of satiety, like cereals or meat, and lemonade does not quench your thirst, like a fruit tonic drink made from natural ingredients. In addition, not a single soldier knows for sure which menu of 24 types will go to him. In addition to sweets, the American food ration menu contains seasoning and seasoning containing harmful substances, for example, mayonnaise. Chewing gum is another product not included in the Russian IRP, but contained in the American. It is not known what caused the content of this product in the dry ration, this can only be explained by the peculiarities of the mentality.