An igloo is a domed hut built of snow. Where there is no forest, this building is able to save winter nights from the cold. And if you build it in the forest, it is able to survive the whole winter thanks to its strength. The height of the igloo is usually one human height, and the diameter depends on the number of people who stayed for the night. Skills on how to build a needle should be worked out long before the planned trip to the steppe or tundra, because in extreme circumstances, especially in frosty and windy weather, promptness in erecting a shelter from the snow is important.Igloo
Igloo: a house of snow
The igloo is made of bricks made from compressed snow. Ideally, the shape of the building should be round, since the area of the spherical hut can reduce heat loss. In addition, this form gives structural strength, despite the fragile "building material". If the needle is erected in deep snow, the entrance to it digs in the ground, and if the depth of the snow cover is small, a small corridor is attached to the hut, which protects the building from the penetration of the wind inside. Warming inside such a dwelling occurs with the help of a candle. The walls will melt a little, but not melt, forming a thin ice crust from the inside. The walls of the needle are capable of transmitting light and water vapor.
How to make a needle out of snow: basic rulesSnow igloo
The tools used to build the snow hut are a knife, a saw, a shovel. On occasion, you can use a regular iron bowl. It must be borne in mind that the smaller the dwelling, the warmer it is, so do not make it too spacious. If the group consists of more than 4-5 people, it is better to build two needles. The gaps between the bricks need to be rubbed with snow. Being inside the needle, you will need to remove your outer clothing so as not to sweat. Inside, it is advisable to use a waterproof fabric as a litter. To cut blocks, you do not need to go far from the designated site, otherwise you can get tired. You need to find the nearest snowdrift with a height of at least 1 meter, and start cutting. In addition, you must follow the basic rules:
- The construction of the igloo must begin before dawn.
- Reconstructing the shelter is strictly prohibited at night, as well as leaving it at this time of day.
- Entrance must be leeward
- You should always have a shovel or other tool inside the shelter to clear the entrance from the snow.
- Care must be taken when breeding open flames inside a shelter, since there is a risk of carbon monoxide poisoning.
- Do not take alcohol inside the needle and sleep when there is a risk of freezing.
- The entrance to the needle should be below floor level. This will provide stagnation of warm air, the outflow of heavy carbon dioxide and the flow of oxygen.
- Tip: if you build a needle on a slope, you will need to spend less effort on building walls, because you need to form less bricks.
How to make a needle out of the snow with your own hands: material
Harvesting bricks from snow depends on its structure. If the crust is tough and durable, a saw (you can use a shovel or a hacksaw) cut blocks a little smaller than a standard gas-silicate brick. Usually the dimensions are 60x40x15, but for the lower row you need to make bigger blocks for stability. Wet snow is hard to cut, but it is sticky, and bricks can be stuck. In order to indicate the shape, you need to use a rectangular blank made from any material at hand. You can do this manually, choosing the size by eye. It is difficult to make bricks from loose snow without preparation, since it will crumble. Snow fits inside the mold, compacted and moistened. After removing the form, the blocks will harden in the cold. Thus, it is necessary to make the necessary number of blocks depending on the size of the needle. You need to cut blocks from the snowdrift from the side from where the wind blows. Nevertheless, dry snow with a density of 0.25-0.30, which has a uniform structure, is considered the best snow for building a snow shelter. Snow of a denser structure has greater thermal conductivity, poor adhesion, and brittleness (at low temperatures).
How to build a needle from snowBeautiful igloo
Before you make a needle out of the snow with your own hands, you need to indicate the area of construction. A knife marks a round platform with a diameter of 3 meters, marking its center with a stick. Immediately you need to mark the entry point inside the needle. As noted above, it needs to be arranged on the leeward side. But, if the parking is planned for a long time, the entrance is arranged at right angles to the windy side. The circle should be made as possible more correct, and no more than three meters, because otherwise the stability of the needle will decrease. After marking, the site must be leveled and compacted. The layout of the snow dwelling should be such that the deck is located opposite the entrance and above it.
Further, along the perimeter of the snow site, it is necessary to trample the recess to the width of the brick, this will make the foundation more solid. If ice is present on the surface, it must be removed.
There are two ways to lay bricks: ring and spiral. In the first case, the blocks are stacked row after row, in the second only the bottom row consists of rectangular blocks, and all subsequent ones are trapezoidal. In spiral laying, after the formation of the bottom row, any three bricks are cut diagonally (you can cut any, except for those located near the entrance area). The third block is cut to half. Next, the laying of the second row begins: the brick is placed in the recess of the third, cut-off brick, then the next one is laid.
In the bottom row, longer and wider snow bricks are laid, with a gap between them to avoid squeezing under the weight of the upper rows. Blocks with defects cannot be used.
To get the required angle of inclination, you can cut already laid bricks, or create the desired slope before laying. To prevent the fall of the upper snow bricks and increase their stability, it is necessary to make a bevel between the upper and lower bricks, for which a cut is made of the inner corner of the upper brick for its tight fit to the lower. During laying, each brick is tightly fitted to the adjacent one, while the external wall is gradually processed. All cracks need to be overwritten with snow formed during fitting; it plays the role of cement. Around the lower part of the needle, a barrier must be built from the remaining blocks to protect against wind, which can blow snow between the bricks of the first row.
After that, the gaps inside the needle are closed, a trench is formed before the entrance with the overlapping of its blocks. While it is formed from the outside by one builder, the second paves the way out from inside. The inlet in the wall of the needle is carefully sawn with a hacksaw. The block cut at the entrance will later need to be moved to the inlet so as not to release heat, to protect it from snow drift and wind.
At the top of the needle, a hole is formed by the arch of the last block row, which needs to be closed with a wedge-shaped brick. In order for it to close the hole tightly, the size of the brick should be slightly larger than it.
After the needle is erected, you need to cut holes in its walls for ventilation against the accumulation of carbon dioxide.