A hike in the mountains is, to some extent, a test of oneself. Experienced travelers are attracted there again and again, and for a beginner, new experiences can be mixed with discomfort. Just like the rest of the wild nature, the mountains are fraught with dangers for which it is difficult to prepare for a beginner. The information below will help you survive in the mountains in case of danger.
Mountain Survival Basics
Survival in the mountains is to extract water, food, fire, build shelter from the wind and low temperatures. Going to a mountainous area, it is necessary to imagine what dangers it is fraught with:
- At altitudes above 2000 meters, a feeling of lack of air begins. When there is a small amount of oxygen in the air, the body gets tired faster. But at an altitude below 7500 meters there are still no such serious consequences for him as above this altitude when altitude hypoxia sets in.
- The higher the mountains, the lower the air temperature.
- Strong wind.
- A high level of humidity, due to the fact that, during the passage of air masses, a cloud can be above the mountain, and then the humidity rises to the maximum level. Even if there is no rain, there is a risk of getting wet.
- In mountainous areas there is a risk of encountering wild animals dangerous to humans.
The main danger is the unpredictable weather in the mountains, which can change from clear and sunny to snowstorm with temperatures below zero. If this happens, you must go down the mountain to the lowland as soon as possible in the same way that you climbed. If the clothes are wet, you need to stop at a halt, light a fire and dry it. If it was not possible to get the fire, you can dry it even in the wind. If the clothes are wet, this will lead to quick freezing and inability to move on.
To prevent the development of mountain sickness, you must move slowly, saving energy. It is better to have some kind of stick or pole with which you can rely. In winter, she needs to check the snow on the path in front of herself for cracks.
Low temperatures combined with a piercing wind and high humidity are serious hazards. Therefore, it is necessary to have very warm gloves, you can use ordinary ones, but additionally insulate them by wrapping them with some kind of cloth. In addition, it is necessary to warm the neck, lower back, lower legs well.
A fabric mask and polarizing glasses will protect your eyes from "snow blindness" with prolonged exposure to the eyes of the sun, and face skin from burns.Rockfall - a frequent occurrence in the mountains
Two hours after sunrise, rockfalls often occur in the mountains. This is due to the fact that stone blocks are heated by the sun and begin to crack. To protect yourself from injuries, you must have a protective helmet or cover your head with a backpack as soon as you hear the noise of falling stones.
The worst thing that can happen in the mountains is to fall under an avalanche. As a rule, a strong avalanche of chances of survival, especially, alone, does not leave. Nevertheless, there is always a chance, and the following actions will help to increase it:
- You need to try to stay on the surface of the avalanche, which allows you to make floating movements.
- Keep snow out of the airways.
- One can get out from under an avalanche not more than one meter deep. To do this, determine where the top and bottom, letting a trickle of saliva, then begin to rake the snow from above.
Going to the mountains alone is too dangerous. It is best to make collective trips when there is a guarantee that they will help you in the event of a dangerous situation.
Mountain Survival Kit
To survive in the mountains, you must have a set of items that help in an emergency. The whole set is packed in a backpack. It should be made of waterproof fabric, be as comfortable as possible so as not to hamper movement, with wide straps, one of which is attached around the waist, and with a hard back. Things are arranged as tightly as possible, while the most necessary of them (first aid kit, raincoat, matches) are stacked on top or in side pockets.
A trekking stick is attached to the backpack or to the side of it - it is a length-adjustable stick with a convenient handle in order to unload the tourist's joints when walking in mountainous areas, providing additional stability and allowing to save strength during long transitions.
A tourist pad-seat allows you to sit on damp ground during rests, and takes up little space in a backpack.
The basis of the diet during mountain climbing should be protein. It is necessary for heavy physical exertion. Carbohydrates are also necessary, so you need to put ascorbic acid, cranberry extract and citric acid in the kit, which will help fight the development of mountain sickness. As a source of fats, you need to use vegetable and butter.
During a mountain trip you need to drink at least 5 liters of water. For convenient carrying, you can equip a drinking system from a bag with a tube with a tip inserted into it, thanks to which you can drink water while moving. In addition, it fits easily in the side pockets of the backpack. In winter, the Aquasol tablet will help to supplement melt water with the necessary minerals.Water in the mountains
In addition to these things specific for a mountain hike, the survival kit must be supplemented with items necessary for use during any trip in the wild: waterproof matches, a first-aid kit, a knife, a hand saw, a rope, an ax, an additional set of clothes.