If you are going to go camping, fishing or just for a walk to places remote from civilization, you should be prepared for all sorts of dangers. And if you can hope for a quick ambulance arrival in the city, then in the wild you will first of all help your own knowledge. First aid for heart failure is an important information that even teenagers should know, because it can help save a person’s life.
Causes of Heart Failure
Cardiac arrest is one of the most common causes of death in people after 45-50 years. Moreover, it is not always preceded by clear symptoms of poor health.Cardiac arrest
The reasons for this phenomenon may be:
- Impaired coronary circulation. It can be caused by both emotional shock and strong physical exertion;
- Severe respiratory failure;
- Severe allergic reaction, for example, anaphylactic shock;
- Heart attack.
The heart can stop when exposed to external factors on the human body. Examples include:
- Mechanical injuries, such as a blow to the chest;
- Electric shock;
- Heat or sunstroke;
- Blood loss in large volumes.
Cardiac arrest provokes a cessation of blood circulation in the parts of the brain, so the victim immediately loses consciousness and his breathing disappears.
First aid for cardiac arrest must begin to be provided at this moment, since the possible period of restoration of the functioning of the body, as a rule, lasts 5 minutes.
After this time, it is possible to revive the activity of most organs and systems, but most likely the brain can no longer be saved.
The fact that the victim had a cardiac arrest, prompt 5 main symptoms. They include:
- Loss of consciousness. The victim ceases to respond to sounds and irritants;
- Lack of pulse. Check it on the carotid artery. For this, the index and middle fingers are applied to the neck at a distance of 2.5-3 cm from the thyroid cartilage. This is a very serious sign;
- Respiratory arrest. It is determined by the absence of characteristic movements of the chest;
- Dilated pupils. It is necessary to raise the upper eyelid and shine a flashlight in the eyes. If the pupils are very dilated and do not react to light, this is a warning sign;
- Acquisition of skin with a bluish or pale gray hue. First of all, this is characteristic of the face area.
In some cases, another sign may be the appearance of body cramps. All these symptoms are very important, and if they are present, you must begin to provide first aid.
Rules for first aid for heart failure
First aid for cardiac arrest must begin with the removal of the ambulance team. In the meantime, she is on her way, you can try to resuscitate the victim with artificial respiration and indirect heart massage. But these measures are unacceptable if:
- Despite the unconscious state of a person, his pulse is clearly palpable and breathing is observed;
- The victim has a fracture of the chest or is suspected of it;
- Cardiac arrest occurred on the background of a fractured skull and brain crush;
- The patient has oncological metastases in the body.
If the above symptoms are not observed, you can begin to provide the victim with first aid to restore cardiac function. The action algorithm should look like this:
- Lay the patient on a flat surface. An improvised roller can be placed under the neck;
- Tilt your head up 45 degrees and extend the lower jaw slightly;
- If necessary, clean the airways with your index finger of foam, vomit, mucus;
- Alternate artificial respiration and indirect heart massage. Recommended ratio of techniques: 1/5 - if resuscitation is performed by one person, 1/10 or 1/15 - if two are involved.
The effectiveness of the actions performed can be judged by the following signs:
- The pulse begins to be felt;
- The level of blood pressure rises;
- The pupils narrow and begin to respond to bright light;
- Spontaneous breathing of the patient is observed;
- The skin takes a healthy shade.
If after half an hour of active action there is no positive dynamics, a high probability is that the patient’s brain has died.
How to do artificial respirationArtificial respiration
In order to apply the method of artificial respiration, the following actions should be performed:
- Pinch the victim’s nose. With the second hand, grab his chin;
- Take a very deep breath in your mouth;
- Grasp the patient's mouth with his lips so as not to lose excess air;
- Exhale vigorously.
The technique can be carried out in two ways: “from mouth to mouth” and “from mouth to nose”. If desired, the mouth or nose can be covered with a clean handkerchief or a piece of gauze.
Indirect Heart Massage Technique
The rules for first aid in the form of indirect heart massage are as follows:
- Take a comfortable position near the victim, to the right or left of him;
- Place one palm on the lower chest so that it is located exactly in the middle;
- Put the second hand on top of the first in a perpendicular position. In this case, the hands should be straight;
- Start doing energetic hand pressure. It is necessary to apply the weight of the whole body. The sternum should bend by about 3 cm, and with increased body weight of the patient - by 5 cm;
- After each press, the hands are held in the final position 1/3 of a second. The total pace of the shocks should be at least 1 per second.
The procedure is carried out until the positive dynamics in the victim. If it is not observed, then resuscitation is necessary before the arrival of the ambulance crew.Indirect cardiac massage
It is very important to prevent fracture of the ribs or chest, since in this condition the patient has a significant decrease in muscle tone, and the risk of bone damage increases.
Direct heart massage
This method is carried out exclusively by the surgeon, since it requires the condition of complete sterility. The doctor has a direct effect on the heart, literally squeezing it. For this patient, they are connected to a ventilator and make an incision.
An untrained person will not be able to implement this technique.
The consequences of heart failure
Cardiac arrest is a very serious phenomenon, after which approximately 30% of people survive, and only 3-4% complete recovery without serious harm to health. The end result depends not only on how the first aid was provided, but also how quickly it was taken.
Often against the background of cardiac arrest, the following complications occur:
- Ischemic brain damage;
- Disorders of the liver;
- Kidney disease.
In addition, the chest may be injured during resuscitation.