Forest areas of Russia are very rich in mushrooms, and residents do not miss the opportunity to take advantage of this gift of nature. By tradition, they are fried, marinated or dried. But the danger lies in the fact that many poisonous species skillfully disguise themselves as edible mushrooms. That is why it is important to know the characteristic features of the allowed varieties.
How to distinguish edible species
Mushrooms are not only tasty, but also very healthy food. They contain substances such as salts, glycogen, carbohydrates, as well as vitamins of groups A, B, C, D. If the mushrooms are young, then they also contain many trace elements: calcium, zinc, iron, iodine. Their intake favorably affects the metabolic processes of the body, increased appetite, the work of the nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract.Forest edible mushrooms
In fact, there are no exact criteria by which safe mushrooms can be distinguished from poisonous ones. Help in this matter can only available knowledge about the appearance, characteristics and names of each species.
Characteristic signs of edible mushrooms
Common criteria for edible mushrooms include:
- Lack of sharp bitter smell and taste;
- They are not characterized by very bright and catchy colors;
- Usually the inner flesh is light;
- Most often they do not have a ring on the leg.
But all these signs are only averaged, and may have exceptions. For example, one of the most poisonous representatives of the white grebe is also completely odorless and its flesh is light.
Another important point in this matter is the area of growth. Usually edible species grow away from their dangerous counterparts. Therefore, a proven harvest site can significantly reduce the risk of running into poisonous mushrooms.
There are many signs and non-standard methods for determining the safety of mushrooms. Here are the most common misconceptions:
- Silver spoon. It is believed that it should darken upon contact with an inedible fungus;
- Onion and garlic. They are added to a decoction of mushrooms and, if they darken, it means that there is a poisonous look in the pan. It is not true;
- Milk. Some people believe that when lowering a fungus dangerous to humans in milk, it will surely turn sour. Another myth;
- Worms and larvae. If they eat certain types of mushrooms, then they are edible. But in fact, some species that are edible for worms can harm human health.
An expanded list of edible mushrooms and their description
In order to indicate the names of all edible mushrooms and give them descriptions, you will need a whole book, since there are a lot of varieties of them. But most often people choose the most famous, already trustworthy species, leaving dubious representatives to professional mushroom pickers.
It is also known as "boletus". This mushroom has earned popularity due to its nutritious and aromatic taste. It is suitable for any type of processing: frying, boiling, drying, salting.Porcini
The porcini mushroom is characterized by a thick light leg and a large tubular hat, whose diameter can reach 20 cm. Most often it has a brown, brown or red color. Moreover, it is completely heterogeneous: the edge is usually lighter than the center. The lower part of the cap with age of the fungus changes color from white to yellow-green. On the leg you can see the mesh pattern.
The inner flesh of a dense texture and its taste resembles a nut. When cutting, its color does not change.
Very high-calorie and nutritious look. Great for pickling and pickling. You can use other types of processing, but it is better not to dry it. It is characterized by a high degree of digestibility.Mushroom saffron
The main feature of saffron milk is their bright orange color. Moreover, the color is characteristic of all parts of the mushroom: leg, hat and even pulp. The hat is plate-shaped and has a recess in the center. The color is not uniform: the redhead is diluted with dark gray spots. The plates are frequent. If you cut the mushroom, the flesh changes color to green or brown.
A common species that, as the name implies, prefers to grow next to a cluster of birches. Ideal in fried or boiled form.Boletus mushroom
The birch bark has a cylindrical light leg covered with dark scales. It is quite fibrous to the touch. Inside light flesh of dense consistency. When cut, it may turn slightly pink. The hat is small, similar to a pillow of gray or brown-brown color. Below are white tubules.
Beloved by many, a nutritious mushroom that grows in the temperate zones.Mushroom boletus
It is not difficult to recognize it: a plump leg expands to the bottom and is covered with many small scales. The cap is hemispherical, but eventually acquires a flatter shape. It can have a red-brown or white-brown color. The lower tubes are close to a dirty gray shade. When cut, the inner flesh changes color. It can turn blue, black purple or red.
Small mushrooms that are most often used for pickling. They grow in the northern hemisphere.Mushroom oiler
The hat is usually smooth and in rare cases fibrous. From above, it is covered with a mucous membrane, so it can seem sticky to the touch. The leg is also predominantly smooth, sometimes it has a ring.
This type necessarily requires pre-cleaning before cooking, but the peel is usually easy to remove.
One of the earliest spring representatives of mushrooms. Grow whole families.Chanterelles
The hat is not a standard look. Initially, it is flat, but over time it takes the form of a funnel with a depression in the center. All parts of the fungus are painted in light orange. The white flesh is dense in consistency, pleasant in taste, but not at all nutritious.
A delicious mushroom that can be found in temperate latitudes. Its most common types are:
- Green. It is characterized by a gray-olive hat, a yellow fibrous leg and a dense light flesh;
- Swamp. Looks like a boletus. The color is mostly yellow. When cut, the flesh turns blue;
- Yellow-brown. The yellow hat takes on a reddish tint with age. The leg is also yellow, but at the base has a darker color.
Suitable for all types of cooking and processing.
Large enough mushrooms growing in Siberia, the Far East and the European part of the Russian Federation.Russula mushroom
Hats can have different colors: yellow, red, green and even blue. It is believed that it is best to eat representatives with the least amount of red pigment. The hat itself is rounded with a small indentation in the center. Records are usually white, yellow or beige. The peel on the hat can be easily removed or go only along the edge. Leg is not high, mainly white.
Popular edible mushrooms growing in large groups. They prefer to grow on tree trunks and stumps.Mushrooms mushrooms
Their hats are usually not large, their diameter reaches 13 cm. In color, they can be yellow, gray-yellow, beige-brown. The shape is most often flat, but in some species they are spherical. The leg is elastic, cylindrical, sometimes has a ring.
This species prefers coniferous and deciduous forests.Mushroom raincoat
The body of the fungus is white or gray-white, sometimes covered with small needles. In height, it can reach 10 cm. The inner flesh is initially white, but eventually begins to darken. It has a pronounced pleasant aroma. If the flesh of the mushroom has already darkened, then do not eat it.
It has a fleshy convex hat with a smooth surface. The inner flesh is denser with a pronounced smell. The leg is cylindrical in shape, expanding towards the bottom. In height, it reaches 8 cm. Depending on the species, the color of the fungus can be purple, brown, gray-brown, ashen and sometimes lilac.
Polish mushroomPolish mushroom
You can recognize it by the pillow-shaped hat of brown or brown color. The surface is slightly rough to the touch. The lower tubes have a yellow tint, which when pressed turns into blue. The same thing happens with pulp. Leg cylindrical inhomogeneous color: the top is darker, the bottom is lighter.
Edible tubular mushroom growing in sparse forests.Oak mushroom
The hat is quite large, grows up to 20 cm in diameter. In structure and form, it is fleshy and hemispherical. The color is usually dark brown or yellow. The inner flesh is lemon-colored, but when cut, it turns blue significantly. The high leg is thick, cylindrical, yellow. To the bottom usually has a darker color.
Oyster mushroomsOyster mushroom
It is characterized by a funnel-shaped form of a hat, with a diameter of up to 23 cm. The color, depending on the type, can be light, closer to white, and gray. The surface is slightly dull to the touch, the edges are very thin. The light legs of oyster mushrooms are very short, rarely reach 2.5 cm. The pulp is fleshy, light, with a pleasant aroma. The plates are wide, their color can vary from white to gray.
Edible mushrooms are very popular due to their pleasant taste and high nutritional value. Their description and characteristics are familiar not only to mushroom pickers.Field champignon mushroom
These mushrooms are familiar with all their white color with a slight grayish tint. The hat is spherical with a bent down edge. Leg is not high, dense in structure.
Most often used for cooking, but for salting are extremely rare.
The edibility of mushrooms in the forest may be conditional. This means that you can eat such species only after a certain type of processing. Otherwise, they can be harmful to human health.
Processing involves a thermal process. But if some types need to be boiled several times, then for others, soaking in water and roasting is enough.
Such representatives of conditionally edible mushrooms include: a real lump, green rowovka, purple cobweb, winter honey agaric, ordinary flake.