Long hikes, hunting, gatherings around the campfire and forest starry sky, weight this is very attractive romantic nature. For some, these are individual cases from life, and for others, there is life itself. If you belong to the second category, then you will probably be interested in information on how to build a winter house in the taiga. Based on some construction rules, you can build a great place, suitable for relaxing from hard working days.
Purpose and general characteristics
The main inhabitants of taiga buildings are fishing hunters, whose work takes place mainly in the winter. In order to have a place to settle at this time of the year, they build for themselves one main and several additional huts, located throughout the forest area.
The main purpose of the hunting house is a roof over your head, strong and reliable walls that can hide from the harsh taiga climate. In the house, a fisherman, and even a simple traveler, can relax, warm up, melt the stove and prepare to eat before the next working day.
As a rule, locks are not hung at the huts, so anyone who is nearby will be able to take advantage of hospitality. There is a weekly supply of firewood and a simple tourist set (matches, canned food, salt, cereals, etc.). The house is also useful in the summer, when many people start walking for mushrooms, berries, fishing and hunting small game. Beekeepers can come for a few days to the flower meadow.The main purpose of the hunting house is a roof over your head and strong and reliable walls that can hide from the harsh taiga climate
Features and rules for the construction of the winterhouse in the taiga
For the hunter-fisherman or hermit, the size of the building is not important, but its functionality, so options with large houses disappear immediately. Their construction will take a lot of time and effort. An experienced taiga knows that it is necessary to build one winter house for permanent residence and a number of small traveling temporary huts. The hunter has at his disposal a certain “valve” of the forest, on which his fishing activities take place. Nets, traps, traps are placed there and, as a rule, it is not enough to go around all the possessions of one day. For this purpose, separate houses for overnight stays are built with their own hands at a distance from each other equal to one winter daylight.
How to build a winter house in the taiga alone? Prepare all the necessary tools and materials. It is better to make a list of everything you may need in advance. It includes:
- chainsaw for cutting logs;
- measuring instruments;
- pencils and markers;
- consumables (nails, wooden planks, insulation, roofing, etc.).
Each list is supplemented based on their needs.
Interior design depends on your needs. Shelves and cabinets can be built to store utensils and supplies.
After the preparatory measures, the construction of the winter house begins directly. It is carried out in several stages.
Choosing a place to build a winter house in the taiga
Much depends on choosing the right place. Take this issue seriously if you plan to stay in the winter hut for the entire season. Near the hut must be a source of drinking or running water and protection from the wind. Also, the house should be located on a small hill in the pit, preferably of natural origin. This will save the lower crowns from spring floods and heavy torrential rains. Look around so that there are no dead wood around. In a gust of strong wind, they can break and cover your temporary shelter.
If you did not find a suitable clearing, you will have to do it yourself. For this, trees are cut down (they can also be used for crowns), stumps are uprooted or burned out, grass is pulled out. As a result, the perimeter should be even and clean from vegetation. You can’t build a winter house in a ravine, groundwater, especially in the spring, will simply take it down.Under the construction of the hut choose a flat elevated clearing
What material to use
If the construction for permanent residence is built only from pre-prepared and dried logs, then fresh material is suitable for the wintering. Of course, you do not need to carry it; everything you need is taken on the spot and handled properly. In a temporary hut, beauty gives way to practicality and reliability. As mentioned above, you can use trunks cut down during clearing the place.
Build a winter house in the taiga from conifers. Fir, pine, fir will do. Cedar is especially good. In addition to strength, it has a healing aroma. The first crown is recommended to be laid from larch and put it on oak stumps, dug in the ground. It will turn out the so-called wooden foundation. Larch practically does not rot, so the structure will last a long time.
You can cope with the tray of material yourself, if the partner was not nearby. One log weighs an average of 120 kg, but since you will drag it at one end, then such a burden is quite feasible for a healthy man. If the weight does not seem to be lifting, choose trunks thinner, but in larger quantities.
The height of the hut is small, slightly higher than human height. How many blanks are needed can be found out by simple calculations. With a ceiling height of 180 cm and a log thickness of 20 cm, 9 trunks are consumed per wall. We multiply them by 4 walls and it turns out that 36 logs will go to the perimeter. It is also necessary to equip the floor and roof, and for them you need boards. They will also require logs. The entire construction will take about 70-75 trunks.
How to build a winter house in the taiga, laying crowns
The most critical construction phase begins. Felled and peeled branches and branches of logs are cleaned of bark. This is necessary to get rid of the tree inhabitants who will eat your house pretty quickly. You can remove the bark with an ax, a shovel, a scraper. If you want to spend a little time on this lesson, start construction in early May. At this time, the bark is especially easy to slime. If possible, prepare logs in December, then after drying, they lend themselves well to debarking.
The crowns are laid in three ways: “in the bowl”, “in the paw” and “in the half-tree”. The latter is the simplest and fastest method of building construction.Construction of a log house
Allows the trunks to fit snugly against each other, so the sealing of cracks is minimized. With this method of laying in each upper log, stepping back a little from the ends, a semicircular recess is cut out into which the lower trunk will enter. After assembly and shrinkage of the log house, the logs form a strong and non-blown structure. The technology of laying "in a bowl" makes the hibernation warm, it does not form condensate, which becomes the cause of the development of the fungus.
To mark the place for cutting out the castle, a special tool is used - the “dash”. It consists of a pen and two parallel pointed ends. The application of this method requires some knowledge in carpentry and will take a lot of time, but the result will please you.
With this installation, the ends of the logs do not protrude, but form a right angle. This allows you to use the entire length of the barrel and save on material. Of the minuses, the possibility of drying out the corners at the junction points is distinguished, which leads to the formation of cracks and blowing. The execution technology "in the paw" requires clear markup and experience in these works, otherwise a quality construction will not work.
There are three “paw” connection options: straight, dovetail and with an additional spike. The first method is more popular for temporary buildings. In the log at the ends, grooves are cut for the length of the section of the element and a depth of half the thickness of the trunk. You can do cutting on one side, but you can do it on two.
This method of erecting the walls of the winterhouse is the most convenient and does not require special skill. The ends of the logs are cut about a quarter from the top with an indent from the edge of 25-30 cm. The same is done with the lower log. Logs are stacked on top of each other groove in groove.
Regardless of the installation method, all slots and grooves clog wet! moss. This is the most important condition. The more moss, the better and warmer it will be inside in winter. It is important to use wet raw materials, because it does not crumble and does not fly away from the wind. With the drying of the trunks, the moss will also dry.
Window and doorways are carved into finished walls. The cut logs are fastened together with a spike. For this, a through hole is made through all the logs, into which a wooden spike is hammered.
Boards will be needed for floor and roof. They are made in place by cutting whole logs. Choose the most even trunks, without jagging, bends, thick branches. As tools you need only an ax. Several longitudinal cuts are made at the base of the trunk; pre-prepared wooden stakes are stuck into them. With an ax butt, the stakes alternately hammer into the trunk and chop it on the boards along the fibers. It is important that the split is the same over the entire length. Although the appearance of such lumber is not very attractive, it is more durable than sawn boards with a tool.Construction of a gable roof frame
We make the roof and lay the floor
There can be two roof options: with and without an attic. In the first case, a single or gable roof is made. Buildings with an attic are more functional. It can carry things, tools, materials remaining after construction. Secondly, such hibernation is warmer due to the fact that the roof is lowered and the heat is better preserved. Unlucky log houses are built faster, and less material is spent for them.
Before the construction of the roof you need to equip the ceiling. For this, boards or small logs are used. As in the walls, the joints are thoroughly filled with moss. As a thermal insulation, earth is poured on top, but the benefits of civilization can also be delivered - ruberoid, plastic film or mineral wool.
For the construction of a gable roof, we make supports in front and behind the hut, fixing them with brackets. A skate is laid on them, on top of which 2-3 slos on each side are supported. The resulting frame is covered with boards and again clog the joints with moss. The roof is covered with a film from above, which is fixed with wooden planks nailed to the sills. The last layer is roofing material, mica or metal.
The floor is made in a manner similar to the ceiling. Boards are stacked and canaped with moss. It is advisable to fit them in size before laying, so it will be easier to work with them.The gable roof frame is covered with boards
Making the winterhouse furnace
The furnace is the heart of the taiga refuge. She will warm, and feed, and dry after the rain. Without a heating device, it will be impossible to live in the winter hut. The most commonly used iron devices. They quickly melt and are able to warm the room in a matter of minutes. The disadvantage of iron stoves is that they both quickly heat up and quickly cool, so every 1-1.5 they need to be fed with a new portion of firewood. If you want to sleep at night, you can impose bricks on the iron stove. As you know, this material does not heat up so quickly, but retains heat much longer.
Think over a chimney well. This must be done even at the stage of construction of the roof, because it requires openings for the outlet of the pipe. A furnace is usually placed in the middle of the hut for uniform heating. If you are installing the oven in a corner, cover the walls with which it comes in contact with metal sheets.
Taiga is a habitat for wildlife that may become uninvited guests at your shelter. To avoid this, the door must be made reliable and tightly closed from the inside. Attach hooks to the ceiling to hang supplies so that mice don’t get them.
Building a winter house is not as complicated as it seems. Follow the sequence and basic rules to get a roof over your head before the start of the winter hunt or to help the lost wanderer survive in the severe taiga laws.