Where and how weapons are sighted

Weapon sighting is a necessary event for each owner. This process allows you to determine the main factors affecting the effectiveness of shooting and significantly increase it. However, in order to thoroughly examine the existing weapons, it is important to know all the features of the shooting.

Why shoot weapons

The weapons collected and released from the factory are already fully operational. However, in different situations, as well as in the hands of various people, the accuracy of shooting, like many other parameters, will differ significantly.

To study all the features of a weapon, the owner must definitely make his sighting “for himself”. This process allows you to learn how to choose the optimal distance to the target, for its defeat. In this case, the owner, before the active use of the product, determines how the weapon behaves in certain conditions.

A firearm is considered to be shot when its owner has achieved full coincidence of the line for aiming with the hit point at a certain distance.

Features of sighting

For the correct shooting, the following parameters are of great importance:

  • The position and distance from which the shot is fired;
  • Target selection.

It is important to know that for different types of firearms, the distance for shooting should be different.

Position and distance selection

All weapons, by their device, are divided into the following types:

  • Smoothbore. These include hunting rifles and shotguns, as well as certain types of rifles and pistols. Such products are designed for a range of not more than 100 meters. Therefore, in order to find out how the weapon will behave when trying to hit a target at close range, shooting is carried out at a distance of 35 meters. The behavior of the product when firing at long distances is studied according to the results of shots taken from 60 meters from the target. The maximum distance for sighting is then 100 meters.
  • Threaded. The design of the products is designed to hit targets from a large distance exceeding 100 meters. Therefore, the sighting is carried out at a distance of 100, 150 m 200 meters from the end of the barrel of the weapon and to the intended target.
Smoothbore weapons

When equipping a weapon with an optical sight, the distance for sighting can significantly increase.

A separate category is the traumatic weapon, mainly used for self-defense. During his tests, the target is set 5-8 meters from the trunk of the product.

For most types of weapons, the best position for shooting and operation is the standing arrow position. Shooting in a lying position is recommended from long-barrel products equipped with a scope.

Target selection

For the convenience of determining the quality of sighting, a large paper target is usually used, the dimensions of which are 1x1 m. The target itself consists of several circles of different diameters inscribed into each other. The centers of each of these circles are at one point. In this case, the central circle, or apple, has a diameter of 20 cm. It is completely painted over in black.

In the process of shooting, bullets or shots pierce the target, leaving neat holes in it. After shooting, an analysis of the main indicators of the quality of the shooting is carried out.

Target for shooting weapons

If you need to shoot a hunting rifle, then the owner of the device must know the sharpness of his battle. For this, a wide board, preferably made of pine wood, is mounted behind the paper target. In this case, the target itself can be depicted on the board.

For targeting weapons, from the barrel of which integral cartridges fly out, a single target can be used for several shots. When working with shot, for a correct assessment of all the characteristics of the gun, a new target will be required for each shot.

The main parameters of the quality of sighting

In the process of targeting any weapon, its owner manages to determine the characteristics of the main parameters:

  • Sharpness of battle;
  • Accuracy of fraction;
  • Constancy of battle;
  • Scree of fraction;
  • Thickening of the scree of shot at the central point of the shot.

Knowing and analyzing all of these indicators allows the owner to make the most accurate and effective shots with the further use of shot weapons.


The sharpness of the battle is determined by the breakdown power of the cartridge or shot when the target is hit. Carrying out the shooting of weapons with the same type of ammunition at different distances allows you to determine the optimal range from the target for its destruction. In other words, the study of this property helps to find out how far from the target the hunter should be during the shot so that the bullet hits the target as deep as possible.

The parameter is very important, because in the process of hunting very often just getting into an animal or bird is not enough. The bullet should not only pierce the skin, but also get to the vital organs. Otherwise, the mining will go away, and the ammunition will be wasted.

At a great distance, the flight speed of the ammunition, and at the same time the sharpness of the battle, drops. In this case, even hitting the target, it can get off with a slight wound and hide.

This indicator depends on a large number of factors:

  • The power of the charge of gunpowder in the ammunition;
  • The weight of the pellets in the cartridge;
  • Type of gun barrel.

The sharpness of the battle is considered low when, as a result of a shot from a distance of 35 m from the edge of the barrel of the weapon, the ammunition went to the target to a depth of less than 2 of its diameter. The sharpness at which the projectile fired at the target to a depth greater than 3 of its diameter is considered acceptable.

Accuracy of battle

During the shooting of a weapon with a shot, after a shot from a muzzle, not a solid cartridge moves, but a large number of small shots. When shooting from a distance of more than 30-35 m, not all shot pellets fall into the target with dimensions of 7.5 x 7.5 cm. The percentage of hit targets against all existing pellets is an indicator of accuracy of fire.

To determine this parameter during the shooting process, it is necessary to draw a circle of 7.5 cm radius on the target with a center point in the middle of the apple. And after the shot, the holes are counted from the pellets that hit the drawn circle.

A high indicator of accuracy is the defeat of the target 75% of the shot from the ammunition from a distance of 35 m. Such cartridges can be used for long-range shooting. To defeat targets at close range, it is worth using ammunition with an accuracy of 50-60%. They create a large cloud of fractions, and allow you to hit the target, even if at the time of the shot she manages to move a little.

Constancy of battle

The parameter allows you to pre-evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of shots. To analyze this indicator during shooting, several shots are made. After that, the owner compares how the results of accuracy, accuracy, thickening and scree of the first shot differ from the subsequent ones.

High constancy of battle is determined when the difference between the results is no more than 10%. Insufficient or poor constancy of battle is established with more than 30% of the difference in the results of successive shots.

Fraction scree

A scree of shot indicates the distance between the shotguns exiting the muzzle of the weapon when it hits the target. Normally, an increased density of the fraction in the center of the formed cloud when it hits the target is allowed.

Fraction scree

High-quality ammunition and weapons, ideally, should provide uniform scattering of shots, both at small, medium and large distances from the target.

Thickening of shot scree to the center

This indicator is important for owners involved in big game hunting. The large density of fractions in the center increases the chances of instantly defeating a stationary target at a distance of 35-40 m from the weapon.

A large thickening of the shot at a distance of 35 m indicates the possibility of using ammunition for firing at a much greater range.

Features and rules of sighting

Sighting of hunting weapons can be done in two ways:

  1. Conventional live ammunition. When choosing ammunition for shooting, each owner himself determines the best options for ammunition for himself. In this case, the owner of the weapon is free to experiment with the amount of shot in the projectile, as well as the power of the powder charge. In this case, those in which the shot shell is related to the weight of the weapon as 1: 100 are considered the most suitable cartridges. The charge of gunpowder in this case is usually related to the mass of the fraction as 1:16.
  2. Cold sighting. They are made with special cartridges with laser target designators or universal ammunition, which can easily be adjusted to any caliber of weapons.

Despite the fact that a cold sighting has a lot of advantages, it only allows you to point out the features of the weapon. However, this type of sighting does not make it possible to study the behavior of the gun when using various ammunition. Therefore, most often sighting is made by live ammunition.

The owner of the gun is extremely important to know where you can shoot your gun. Usually this procedure is carried out in special shooting ranges or specially designated shooting ranges. Shooting in the wrong place entails a punishment from a fine to criminal liability.

The hunting rifle can be shot in separate hunting grounds, having at the same time a special permission of the state standard.

Rifle with a telescopic sight

To know how to correctly shoot from a rifled gun equipped with an optical sight, it is important to understand that the presence of a support under the weapon plays a significant role in performance. Zeroing can be done both from a prone and reclining position, and standing.

The support for the rifle can be a special stand for the forend, or improvised materials and means:

  • Various bipod;
  • Sand-filled bags
  • Specialized stops for precision shooting.
Gun sighting with rifle scope

Also, as a support, you can use the hood of your own car, the fence and whether any suitable design.

Without an optical sight

Weapons without optics can also be shot from any position. However, most often this process occurs from a standing position. At the same time, both a special vice and improvised means can be used to fix a carbine or a muzzle of a product.

For the accuracy and accuracy of shooting, it is important that the support tightly fixes the weapon. But at the same time, the support should not be too soft or hard.

What cartridges are used and how to determine their quality

The main condition for choosing cartridges for shooting is the correspondence of the caliber of ammunition to the nominal value of the cartridge for the weapon used. The type of projectile and its power are selected individually, according to the needs of the owner of the firearm. In this case, a selection is often made precisely during the shooting process. This method is called cartridge selection. However, to make it right, it is not enough to carry out one shot with each type of ammunition. Shooting should be carried out on 5-6 volleys by each type of cartridge from the same distance. After that, the effectiveness of each type of ammunition is evaluated.

Zeroing can also be done with special gross cheap cartridges. However, this is acceptable if they will be used in the future.

When selecting a cartridge, it is important to remember that heavy ammunition will always be thrown away by a weapon. And after using them, light cartridges will noticeably go down from the intended point of impact.

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